Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint
The knee is made up of four bones. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle. The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee and rides on the knee joint as the knee bends. The fibula is a shorter and thinner bone running parallel to the tibia on its outside. The joint acts like a hinge but with some rotation.
A fracture is a condition in which there is break in the continuity of the bone. In younger individuals these fractures are caused from high energy injuries, as from a motor vehicle accident. In older people the most common cause is weak and fragile bone.
Arthritis of Knee Joint
Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain free movement in the joint. This surface can wear out for a number of reasons; often the definite cause is not known.
The knee can be divided into three compartments: patellofemoral, medial and lateral compartment. The patellofemoral compartment is the compartment in the front of the knee between the knee cap and thigh bone. The medial compartment is the area on the inside portion of the knee, and the lateral compartment is the area on the outside portion of the knee joint. Patellofemoral instability means that the patella (kneecap) moves out of its normal pattern of alignment.
Non-Surgical Knee Treatments
In some cases, the damage to the knee’s cartilage may not be severe enough to warrant knee replacement surgery. While there may still be mild pain, this can be managed through a number of non-invasive options. Mr. McKenna will determine, in conjunction with each individual patient, if knee replacement is needed right away, or if it may be put off while much more conservative treatment is undergone.
Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint
Knee Arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to look into the knee joint to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and a majority of the patient’s discharge from the hospital on the same day of surgery.
Total Knee Replacement (TKR)
To best understand your total knee replacement surgery, it is important to know how your knee works. A total knee replacement produces an artificial joint that functions similar to your natural knee. A total knee replacement can also help individuals return to their lifestyle, often pain free. Although the idea of getting an artificial knee joint may be intimidating, it is one of the safest and most effective medical procedures.
Revision Knee Replacement
Revision knee replacement surgery involves replacing part or all of your previous knee prosthesis with a new prosthesis. Although total knee replacement surgery is successful, sometimes the procedure can fail due to various reasons and require a second revision surgery.
Partial Knee Replacement
The goal of knee replacement surgery is to decrease pain and restore function. Although total knee replacement (also called "arthroplasty") is an excellent option for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, other surgical options exist. Patients with osteoarthritis that is limited to just one part of the knee may be candidates for unicompartmental knee replacement (also called a "partial" knee replacement).